Housing is important to the U.S. economy and to individual financial well-being. Where someone lives affects their job, education, and other opportunities in life. As part of our efforts to identify issues and inform solutions related to the housing market and access to housing, the Philadelphia Fed is examining historical barriers to housing and their lasting impacts.
In this data visualization, you can see thousands of properties in the city of Philadelphia with deeds containing a racial covenant between 1919 and 1932. This map is part of a larger study examining the connection between racial covenants and residential segregation patterns, home prices, rental and homeownership rates, home equity accumulation, and transfers of wealth between generations.