A person types at a laptop computer while holding a credit card.

Consumer Finance


4-in-6 Payment Products — Buy Now, Pay Later: Insights from New Survey Data

Since 2019, buy now, pay later (BNPL) lending products have experienced rapid growth in transaction volume and garnered significant attention from consumers, researchers, and regulators. BNPL products that use an interest-free, 4-payments-in-6-weeks (4-in-6) structure have been examined closely because of concerns that their unique characteristics might pose risks to vulnerable consumers and other providers of consumer credit.

Cubicles and a hallway in a busy modern office.

The Economy


Labor Markets and Opportunity

Welcome to Labor Markets and Opportunity, a source for Philadelphia Fed research, data, and perspectives on labor markets and economic opportunity.

Advancing Fairness in Lending Through Machine Learning

Showcasing the work of Philadelphia Fed researchers, this interactive data visualization explores an approach to credit lending using machine learning and fairness goals that may help address current disparities in credit access.


Aruoba-Diebold-Scotti Business Conditions Index

An index designed to track real business conditions at high observation frequency

A close-up of gold bars.

Monetary Policy

Working Paper

Price-Level Determination Under the Gold Standard

WP 24-06 – How does an economy behave in a historical environment where gold is the international monetary standard? We find that key features of this monetary system are long-run price stability and the nonneutrality of money in the short run.

Economic Outlook: We Are in the Final Mile of the Marathon

2024 Lyons Center for Economic Education and Entrepreneurship, University of Delaware | Newark, DE





The Mortgage Market Research Conference