Over the last three decades, U.S. workers have suffered an overabundance of hardship. They have endured the pains of globalization. They have seen the prized manufacturing jobs that once defined America’s middle class move offshore. They have borne witness to the diminishing role of unions and seen the negotiating power of labor ebb. They have faced the onslaught of fast-paced technological change, with automation taking over many of the tasks they once performed. They have seen wages decline and benefits disappear. As other advanced and developing nations have invested in education and training at a faster pace than the United States, they have seen their ability to compete globally decline. Despite all the disruptive forces of change, U.S. workers remain remarkably resilient.

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