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Cascade: No. 78, Fall 2011

Workforce Development Resources

The following reading list of research studies, articles, and tools has been compiled for Cascade readers who want to learn more about workforce development issues and strategies.

General Information

Haralson, Lyn E. “What Is Workforce Development?” Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Bridges (Spring 2010), available at http://www.stlouisfed.org/publications/br/ articles/?id=1953 External Link.
This article introduces the topic of workforce development and discusses how its different definitions can be integrated into one comprehensive perspective.

Seymonds, William C., Robert B. Schwartz, and Ronald Ferguson. “Pathways to Prosperity: Meeting the Challenge of Preparing Young Americans for the 21st Century,” Harvard Graduate School of Education (February 2011), available at http://tinyurl.com/6g3mg8y External Link.
This report explains the reasons the United States has failed to adequately prepare many young adults for the labor force and offers a vision of how the United States could regain its former leadership position in educational attainment.

Postsecondary Education

Carnevale, Anthony P., and Stephen J. Rose. “The Undereducated American,” Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce (June 2011), available at http://cew. georgetown.edu/undereducated/ External Link.
This report maintains that for decades the United States has been under-producing employees with postsecondary educations. An additional 20 million such employees are needed in the next 15 years to meet the economy’s need for skilled labor and reduce income inequality.

English, Ed. “Cap in Hand: The High Price of Higher Education,” Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta EconSouth (Spring 2011), pp. 7–10, available at http://www.frbatlanta.org/ documents/pubs/econsouth/11q1.pdf PDF Document External Link.
The cost of postsecondary education is soaring, making the attainment of a degree out of reach for many people. What is behind tuition inflation and can its trajectory be altered?

Jenkins, Davis, and Monica Reid Kerrigan. “Faculty and Administrator Data Use at Achieving the Dream Colleges: A Summary of Survey Findings,” Columbia University Teachers College (February 2009), available at http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/Publication.asp?uid=671 External Link.
This article summarizes the findings from a study that examined the specific data used by faculty and administrators at Achieving the Dream colleges and the extent to which they use data to improve programs. There are 160 Achieving the Dream colleges that seek to improve higher education for low-income and minority students.

Jenkins, Davis, Shanna Smith Jenkins, and Josipa Roska. “Promoting Gatekeeper Course Success Among Community College Students Needing Remediation: Findings and Recommendations from a Virginia Study (Summary Report),” Columbia University Teachers College (November 2009), available at http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/publication. asp?UID=714 External Link.
This study examines student characteristics and course-taking patterns that are associated with higher probabilities that remedial students pass college-level math and English.

Kazis, Richard. “Community Colleges and Regional Recovery: Strategies for State Action,” Brookings Institution (May 2011), available at http://tinyurl.com/3u6stmf External Link.
In order to prepare for long-term, sustainable economic growth, states should align workforce development, postsecondary education, and economic development efforts while targeting sectors critical to regional competitiveness.

Smith Jaggars, Shanna, and Di Xu. “Online Learning in the Virginia Community College System,” Columbia University Teachers College (September 2010), available at http://ccrc. tc.columbia.edu/publication.asp?uid=813 External Link.
This study examines the patterns of online versus face-to-face courses with regard to retention, performance, and subsequent educational outcomes.

Wachen, John, Davis Jenkins, and Michelle Van Noy. “How I-BEST Works: Findings from a Field Study of Washington State’s Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training Program,” Columbia University Teachers College (September 2010), available at http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/publication. asp?UID=806 External Link.
The I-BEST program is a strategy to increase the rate at which adult remedial students enter and succeed in postsecondary occupational education. Remedial instructors and technical faculty jointly design and teach courses.

High School Partnerships

Kerrigan, Monica Reid, and Doug Slater. “Collaborating to Create Change: How El Paso Community College Improved the Readiness of Its Incoming Students Through Achieving the Dream,” Columbia University Teachers College (March 2010), available at http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/publication.asp?uid=754 External Link.
El Paso Community College has implemented a number of high school interventions aimed at boosting student success and decreasing the need for remedial courses.

Somoza, Lela. “Putting It All Together for a Better Future,” Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Partners in Community and Economic Development, 21:1 (2011), pp. 2–7, available at http://tinyurl.com/3bshq5b External Link.
When high school graduation rates in Carroll County, Georgia, began to falter, one local business decided to create a program for at-risk high school students to ensure it had an educated labor pool for the future.

Disadvantaged Populations

Heinrich, Carolyn J., and Harry Holzer. “Improving Education and Employment for Disadvantaged Young Men: Proven and Promising Strategies,” Urban Institute (May 2010), available at http://tinyurl.com/3ruhc93 External Link.
This article reviews rigorously evaluated strategies aimed at helping disadvantaged youth complete postsecondary education and improve employment prospects.

Holzer, Harry J. “Workforce Development as an Antipoverty Strategy: What Do We Know? What Should We Do?” Urban Institute (October 2008), available at http://www.urban.org/ publications/411782.html External Link.
Skills have never been more important in the workforce; however, public dollars spent on workforce development are declining. This paper examines funding trends and the cost effectiveness of various workforce development programs.

Maguire, Sheila, Joshua Freely, and Carol Clymer. “Tuning In to Local Labor Markets,” Public/Private Ventures (2009), available at http://tinyurl.com/26lpesz External Link.
Do mature sector-focused programs result in significant labor market gains for low-income, disadvantaged workers? Public/Private Ventures launched the Sectoral Employment Impact Study to examine this question.

Workforce Development in the Future

Giloth, Robert P. “Lessons for a New Context: Workforce Development in an Era of Economic Challenge,” Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Community Investments (Spring 2011), available at http://tinyurl.com/3veofpl External Link.
This article discusses changes in workforce development since the 1990s and the need to integrate workforce development in public and private investments in infrastructure, transportation, health care, and energy.

Melnik, Mark, Barry Bluestone, and Alan Clayton-Matthews. “Needed Skills Versus Available Skills: An Assessment Tool Is Launched,” Federal Reserve Bank of Boston Communities & Banking (Winter 2009), available at http://tinyurl.com/3dla7zt External Link.
The Labor Market Assessment Tool identifies the skills needed in growth industries, enabling government agencies and schools to tailor workforce development programs for future needs.

Uhalde, Ray. “Workforce Development That Supports Economic Development,” IEDC Economic Development Journal, (Winter 2011), pp. 42-49, available at http://tinyurl.com/uhalde External Link.
Future U.S. economic prosperity depends significantly upon the education and skill level of our current and future workforce. This paper maintains that workforce and economic development need to be more closely aligned.

Tools

Data Analysis

American Human development Project — Social Sciences Research Council http://measureofamerica.org/ External Link
This tool creates customized maps and charts using over 100 indicators for each state and congressional district.

Federal Reserve economic data — Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/ External Link
This comprehensive site provides over 30,000 U.S. national and regional economic time series data on employment, business, and many other topics. Data can be downloaded and graphed.

Map Your Community — Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
http://tinyurl.com/3cp3eeu External Link
The Map Your Community tool allows users to create customized maps, providing insight into current and historical economic and demographic conditions. The interface was developed by PolicyMap and is provided by the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.

Job and Career Resources

CareerOneStop — U.S. Department of Labor and the State of Minnesota http://www.careeronestop.org/ External Link
CareerOneStop helps job seekers explore careers, investigate salary and benefits information, explore education and training opportunities, plan job searches, write résumés and cover letters, and prepare for job interviews. This site also provides links to workforce and labor market information that contain local information.

E-Mail Notification

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Contact Us

Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Community Development Studies and Education Department
Ten Independence Mall
Philadelphia, PA 19106-1574

(215) 574-6458 – phone
(215) 574-2512 – fax
info.communitydevelopment
@phil.frb.org

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